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What degree of advanced mathematics is needed in modern society?
Not all members of society are the same, every member needs different degree of mathematical knowledge. I belive that some members dont need any, they can rely on computers or calculators.
The important thing is not whether you need it, one can almost always improve life conditions through mathematical knowledge and live without any knowledge at all. The main factor is whether the given member of society has the capacity to understand certain parts of mathematics or not.
The biggest positive of mathematical knowledge isn't ability to do calculations, but ability to better understand and conceptualise the world around you. Computers can't do that for people.
Relying on the salesperson's calculator can sometimes be a mistake. If you don't have a rough idea of how much change you are going to get, by using addition and subtraction in your head, then you may lose money if the salesperson cheats you.